Poster Presentations for Session #2 at 11:30am in Science Hall Commons

Dancing in the Middle of Nothing:  A Novel in Movements

Hilton Webb

Dr. Robert Butler

Dreiser's Sister Carrie entitled "A Waif in the Big City"

Tommy Ankner-Lyons

Dr. Robert Butler

Sons of Darkness:  Resurrection

Andrew Thomas

Dr. Robert Butler

The Marriage Gap Among Women: Overriding External Factors

Hector Rivera

Dr. Patricia Christian

The review of contemporary literature on the issue of declining marriage rates among various strata motivated an analysis of the factors that separate those who are married from those who are not. The alarming trend in the drop in the marriage rate among the lower income strata is one that needs to be addressed further. There are contrasting views on the causes. On one side of the aisle, the suggestion is that those in the lower income strata do not value marriage as they once did. On the other side, the position is that lack of opportunity for jobs and higher education lead to a cycle of poverty that strains existing marriages or creates less marriageable people. We rely on data pertaining to the marital status of women in the ages when they are most likely to have dependent children, since we premise our working theory on the fact that mothers most often are the lone parent in the home. Data from the General Social Survey was used to test hypotheses, on the factors causally related to marriage rates. The results of cross tabulating variables such as level of education, income, and single motherhood with marital status shows education to be the explanatory variable affecting both income and marital status. Controlling for education level allows us to conclude, with statistical significance, that when a woman earns a degree, she is 16% more likely to be married than those earning a high school degree or less. There is also a statistically significant association between income status and marriage rates (chi square=27.620, p=.000); when controlling for education we find again that it is the additional explanatory variable significantly involved in these outcomes. In the analysis of single mothers and income status, when setting a criterion of .1, we find that they are likely to earn less than mothers who are married – there is a 16 percentage point difference (chi square = 5.697, p=.058). When conducting an elaboration analysis we find once again that education is the additional explanatory variable that contributes to marriage. The limitations of the data relied on, and our conclusion that there needs to be comprehensive approaches to increasing the education of women, should inspire more intense research in order to create policy change that can result in increased marriage rates.

Atheists, Accommodating Achievers or Maligned Malcontents?

Derrick Barnes

Dr. Patricia Christian

Numerous studies suggest that as individual I.Q. scores increase, the likelihood that that individual is or will become an atheist also increases. Additionally, the Socioeconomic Insecurity Hypothesis suggests that countries that display more societal dysfunctions – according to a range of quantitative measures – religiosity in those countries (such as church attendance and literal belief in biblical scriptures) sky rocket.  As conditions improve, as with first world countries, religiosity goes down. Considering these studies in accordance with the broader functionalist position (especially control theory) as a guide, this paper will explore whether atheism is causally associated with increased or decreased measures of a number of variables (namely: happiness, income, highest degree earned, trust and criminal convictions) by way of secondary data analysis. Using a limited data set from the General Social Survey, which when coupled with misreporting that is to be expected whenever research concerns itself with questions that are considered socially undesirable, isolating the independent variable (i.e. atheist) was an arduous process. However, once accomplished, it was determined that trust and happiness do not show measures of association that are statistically significant (p < .1) with religiosity (χ2 = .560, p = .454, n = 882 and χ2 = .000, p = .989, n = 1335 respectively). There is significant association between religiosity and success however (more than a high school diploma, and income of $25,000 and above, χ2 = 27.096, p = .000, n = 1341 and χ2 = 13.359, p = .000, n = 1265, with atheists showing markedly higher levels of both education and income (56.5% to 34.5% and 48.6% compared to 33.2%), more than that of the religious. However, contrary to what one would expect from the available literature, GSS data appeared to show that atheists are more likely to be convicted of a crime than the religious are (16.3% to 10.4%). Moreover, those atheists with strong familial ties offend more than their less social counterparts, 19.4% up from 16.3%. Quite unexpectedly, this result is in conflict with our working assumption, and seems to contradict control theory unswervingly. Consequently, this outcome provides a lucid illustration of the need for further research.

Helping Genocide: How Common People Aided the Nazi’s in the Holocaust

Alex Baumgardner

Dr. Larry Jones

This paper will explore the Holocaust from the perspective of the citizens of Germany.  It will examine in particular what ordinary German citizens knew about the Holocaust and how they reacted to this knowledge.  It will also focus on the reactions of the Catholic and Lutheran churches to the Nazi treatment of German Jews, including their increasing segregation from the rest of German society and their eventual deportation to death camps in the East.  By determining how the action or inaction of individual Germans aided, either intentionally or unwittingly, in the extinction of German Jewry, the presentation will determine whether they can or should be held liable for the events that transpired.

Art History Research Assistant

Michael Barone

Dr. Claire Kovacs

During the course of my Career Earning Excellence Program with Dr. Claire Kovacs in the Art History Program, I had the opportunity to work with her on a number of her papers for publication and presentations at conferences. In my role as a research assistant, I was responsible for aiding Dr. Kovacs in researching facts, editing, and tracking down image rights. Through my work I was able to gain better insight into the processes one must go through to have a paper published in a scholarly journal. I was able to witness the steps firsthand, and the importance of each of them in the overall process. In addition to the articles, I also had the chance to observe and assist Dr. Kovacs' work on a visual arts project focused on Paris in the nineteenth century. This poster will focus on the lessons I learned during my time as a CEEP student that will benefit me as I continue my career in the field.

Ability to Pursue Career Goals at One's College Increases the Likelihood of Staying

Samuel Hansen

Dr. Judith Larkin

How does having career goals affect the decision to stay at one's college? This was the question we asked 132 introductory psychology students in a correlational study that looked at the relationship between having career goals and retention. We found no relationship between intention to stay at Canisius until graduation and these career-related variables: knowing one's career path, career certainty, having set goals to realize that career, knowing how to achieve the goals, and identifying with the career. The hypothesis that career goals would be associated with intention to stay was not supported. In addition, none of the career variables was significantly correlated with actual retention. However, the ability to pursue one's career goal at Canisius was significantly correlated with intention to stay (r = .57). We conclude that it's not the career goal itself, but students' perception that their program will get them to that goal, that may count for their persistence in college.

Stable Love: A Behavioral Assessment to Improve Equine Adoptability

Claire Taberski

Dr. Susan Margulis

Meet Your Match (MYM), a program of the ASPCA, utilizes behavioral assessments on incoming dogs and cats in a shelter in order to categorize these animals into distinct personality groups that may then be paired with an adopter's desires for his or her new pet. With many horses present in SPCAs across America and other horse rescues, I have created a MYM program, called Stable Love, for horses. I am testing this program on horses of differing breeds, sex, and environment at three facilities in order to better solidify the assessment itself and the categorization of horses within distinct personality groups. The assessment is an appropriate reflection of equine behavioral variation. The program thus far contains the full behavioral assessment, the personality categories with a scoring guide, and an adopter survey, although this has not yet been tested.

Individual Differences in Maternal-Infant Relationships in the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

Samantha Webb, Alexandra Ferrente, Elizabeth George, Ashley Holmes, Christy Schultz, Jerrianne Whitmore, Kristen Whyle

Dr. Michael Noonan

The goal of this project was to examine mothering style and infant behavior in beluga whales (Dephinapterus leucas).  The subjects were four mother-neonate pairs, housed at Marineland of Canada (Niagara Falls, Ontario).  An ethogram-based, focal-animal paradigm was used to record behavioral details twice per week for four months.  There were six main findings.  1.  Maternal-infant bonds were characteristically maintained via close parallel swimming.  2.  When separations did occur, they were most often initiated by the calf.  3. Such separations became more frequent with increasing age.  4. The mothers varied considerably in the degree to which they herded their calves.  5.  The mothers also varied on the degree to which they participated in allomothering.  6. The calves varied considerably on a shy-bold continuum.  It is hoped that these results will provide important knowledge about the critical post-natal period in this species.

Serving Siblings: The Mission of WNY Sibshop

Shannon Tierney, Elizabeth Piotrowski, Gabrielle Mesches, Catherine Canfield, Kyle Dolcemascolo

Dr. Susan Putnam

Having a family member with a serious developmental or other chronic disorder exerts a profound effect on the lives of the entire family, including siblings who are confronted with adult issues at a very young age. The mission of the WNY Sibshop is to provide support for these siblings by creating an environment in which they can share their experiences, learn about disabilities, and interact in fun, relaxing ways. Sibshop sessions consist of games, crafts, snacks, special programs and a skittle discussion period. This is an opportunity for the children to voice concerns and feelings, as well as various experiences they have had with their siblings. Children receive one-on-one, and at times even two-on-one, attention from facilitators. It is also important to the WNY Sibshop at Canisius College to spread an awareness of siblings ever-changing and important concerns about their family through our workshops, websites, and our written research.

Toward a Multifunctional 19F MRI Contrast Agent Based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

Jonathan Binns, John Heck, Jamie Hitro, Joe Schnitter

Dr. Jeremy Steinbacher

Novel drug-delivery agents are needed to overcome the limitations of systemic toxicity of traditional chemotherapeutics, and an even more powerful paradigm combines delivery and imaging into one agent. One potential agent is mesoporous silica nanoparticles, a material with minimal toxicity and great flexibility for functionalization. Progress has been made by others using these particles as multifunctional drug-delivery and imaging agents, but one imaging modality not yet combined with silica particles is 19F MRI. Here, we present efforts to prepare a multifunctional silica nanoparticle that incorporates fluorine atoms for detection by 19F MRI. We have attached alkoxysilanes (which we synthesized) containing fluorine atoms to the pore surfaces of silica nanoparticles with MCM-41 pore structure and surface PEGylation to encourage solubility. We used 19F NMR spectroscopy to detect these fluorine atoms, demonstrating proof-of-principle that 19F MRI can image these materials

Synthesis of stimuli-responsive linkers for use in silica multifunctional drug-delivery agents

John Heck, Jamie Hitro, Jonathan Binns

Dr. Jeremy Steinbacher

A powerful paradigm for cancer therapy combines delivery and imaging into one agent: so-called theranostic materials. One platform for such an agent is porous silica nanoparticles, a well-characterized material with minimal toxicity and great flexibility for functionalization. Many theranostic systems depend on triggers from biologically-relevant stimuli to effect the release of a payload or the activation of some imaging modality. We have designed a set of universal, stimuli-responsive organoalkyoxysilanes for use with silica theranostic agents. We have made progress toward a number of acetal and disulfide linkers containing either an azide or a terminal alkyne, making them reactive in the popular, high-yielding click Huisgen dipolar cycloaddition. We have tested several activated disulfides in the synthesis of our linker. Our silanes will allow for the facile functionalization of any silica theranostic agent with pH- or redox-cleavable payloads.

Challenges of Women in Male-Dominated Professions

Haley Fromen

Dr. Melissa Wanzer

Sexual harassment of women in the workplace happens more often than we think and is an issue that needs to be addressed in the business world. It is all too common, especially in women that hold male dominated positions. What is even more common is that these women do not share their experience with others. This project will shed light on obstacles that women in male dominated positions face and touch on privacy management theory, as it pertains to these women sharing their negative and discrimination experiences. Participants will complete a questionnaire about their behavior intent to have discussions about sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace, as well as their intent to discuss this experience with others. The purpose of this project is to learn if among women in male dominated jobs, women are more likely to be sexually harassed, and whether these women differ in attitudes toward this experience and discuss telling others about their experience.