Biology

Biology

Courses & Curriculum

The Biology major offers broad training in the biological sciences and balances organismal with cellular/ molecular biology. This background serves as a solid preparation for:

  1. future graduate level education in the biological sciences; 
  2. future professional education in the health-related  sciences; 
  3. employment at the bachelors level; and 
  4. additional training in other disciplines that require a thorough understanding of biology, such as sports medicine and various areas of business, communications, engineering, law and social policy development.

The biology program of study combines lectures and a hands-on learning experience in both its core and elective courses. The elective courses offered within the major cover a variety of biological fields, which allow students to sample many areas of biology or to investigate more thoroughly specific areas of special interest. In addition, the opportunity to do independent research with a faculty member in the Biology Department helps develop additional skills not normally offered in undergraduate courses and enhances the total undergraduate science experience through the application of knowledge acquired in coursework.

The biology graduate may be employed in a variety of fields including research, teaching, industry, government service, sales, technical writing and environmental management. Within these fields are numerous interest areas, e.g. biotechnology, public health, forestry, agriculture, toxicology, pharmacology, wildlife and fisheries sciences, physiology, sports medicine, etc. Students interested in teaching at the secondary-school level should major in the Biology program, while those interested in the medical technology profession should major in the Clinical Laboratory program.

The department also has developed programs for students interested in: Early Assurance Acceptance into the SUNY/Buffalo Medical and Dental Schools and Syracuse Medical School; Joint Degree Programs with SUNY/Buffalo Dental School, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, the New York and Ohio Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, and the New York College of Optometry; and dual major programs in Biology-Psychology.  In addition, a series of specialized courses have been developed for the non-science major that relate biological concepts and scientific methodologies to societal issues facing humankind as a result of technological advances.

Qualifications for the major

Students must maintain a 2.0 overall average to graduate with a degree in Biology. All students must complete a minimum of 120 credit hours to graduate. Students must attain a C- or greater in each of the introductory courses (BIO 111, 112, and 211) in order to progress into the next course in the Biology sequence.  Students must have a C or better in BIO 212 and successfully complete BIO 211L and BIO 212L to take any 400-level Biology courses.

Advisement

All biology majors are assigned advisors within the department. All majors should work closely with their advisors in discussing career expectations, choosing their biology electives and developing their total academic programs. The advisor may be changed at the student’s request.

Biology Curriculum

The following curriculum fulfills all requirements and prepares students well for graduate schools in the biological sciences and for schools of allopathic (MD) and osteopathic (DO) medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, podiatry and optometry.

1. Core Curriculum Requirements: 
View the Core Curriculum requirements.  All students complete these requirements as part of their overall Canisius education.

2. Major course requirements: (20 courses)

A.  Major Courses (14 courses)  
BIO111/111L Introductory Biology I 4 credits  
BIO112/112L Introductory Biology II 4 credits
BIO 211/211L  Biochemistry and Cellular Biology I 4 credits
BIO 212/212L Biochemistry and Cellular Biology II 4 credits
BIO 351 Biology Seminar I 1 credit
BIO 353 Biology Seminar II 1 credit
CHM 111-112 General Chemistry (with labs) 8 credits  
CHM 227-228 Organic Chemistry (with labs) 8 credits
PHY 201-202 General Physics (with labs) 8 credits
Mathematics electives: two courses: MAT-111 
and MAT 141 or PSY 201; MAT 111-112; one year of statistics  
8 credits
(Note: the combination of MAT 109 and 110 Calculus with Review I and II can be taken in place of MAT 111; likewise, the combination of CHM 109 and 110 can be taken in place of CHM 111)  
   
B.  Major Electives (6 courses)  22 credits
Three courses and their associated laboratories must come from any three of the following four Tracks: 

I. Animal Biology (BIO 310, 313, 314, 316, 324, 340, 365, 366); 
II. Biological Diversity (BIO 305, 307, 320, 335, 343, 370, 375, 377); 
III. Cellular Biology (BIO 414, 418, 419, 425, 426, 432, 435, 445); and 
IV. Genetics/ Molecular Biology (BIO 404, 405, 408, 450).

The remaining three biology electives may come from within these areas, or from other elective courses in biology, and at least one must include a laboratory. A student enrolled in three semesters of BIO 301 would fulfill this last laboratory requirement. Students should see their advisors to plan their selection. Prerequisites for all courses minimally include the completion of BIO111/11L, BIO112/112L, BIO211/211L, and BIO212/212L.


3. Free Electives: 
Free electives are courses in addition to the Core Curriculum and major requirements sufficient to reach a minimum of 120 credit hours for graduation. Students may graduate with more but not less than 120 credit hours

Recommended Semester Schedule for Major Courses

Students should consult with their major advisor every semester to discuss course offerings and the courses needed to meet graduation requirements.  It is particularly important that the biology major maintain the indicated required science course sequence to ensure prerequisite requirements are met for upper-level courses and to ensure that all basic requirements have been completed prior to taking standardized graduate/professional school entrance examinations (e.g. GRE, MCAT, DAT). These exams are normally taken late in spring semester of the junior year. 

Recommended Schedule:

Fall        Spring     
Freshman Year            
BIO 111/111L   4 credits   BIO 112/112L   4 credits
CHM 111   4 credits   CHM 112   4 credits
Mathematics or AS   4 or 3 credits   Mathematics   4 credits
             
Sophomore Year            
BIO 211/211L   4 credits   CHM 228   4 credits
CHM 227   4 credits   BIO 212/212L   4 credits
        BIO351   1 credit
             
Junior Year            
Biology elective   3 or 4 credits   PHY 202   4 credits
PHY 201/L   4 credits   Biology elective   3 or 4 credits
             
Senior Year            
Biology elective   3 or 4 credits   Biology elective   3 or 4 credits
Biology elective   3 or 4 credits   Biology elective   3 or 4 credits
BIO 353   1 credit        

Special Programs

Biology With Distinction.  This program is intended for biology majors who have a true interest in research.  Upon graduation they will receive certification of completing their major “with distinction”.  Program requirements include writing of a formal research proposal to be submitted to their thesis committee, completion of the research project (600 research hours minimum), writing the final thesis paper, and presentation of a departmental seminar with verbal thesis defense in front of their committee.  Interested students must apply to this program by January of their junior year.  See department chair for complete details.

Early Assurance Program with S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Medical School or Syracuse Medical School: Qualified students may apply to the State University of New York Medical School or Syracuse Medical School during their sophomore year. Those accepted will be admitted into the Medical School freshman class after their graduation from Canisius.

Early Assurance Program with S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Dental School: Qualified students may apply to the S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Dental School during their sophomore year. Those accepted will be admitted into the Dental School freshman class after their graduation from Canisius.

Joint Degree Program with S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Dental School, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, the Ohio or New York Colleges of Podiatric Medicine or the New York College of Optometry. These are seven-year programs, of which the first three years are spent at Canisius and the last four years at either the S.U.N.Y. Dental School or the N.Y. College of Podiatric Medicine. A B.S. degree will be awarded from Canisius College after completion of the first year of dental or podiatric school. The D.D.S., D.O., D.P.M., or O.D. degree will be awarded at the end of seven years. Joint degree students must meet biology major distribution requirements. Students should see an advisor to plan course selections.

Ontario Veterinary College DVM Program.  The Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) of the University of Guelph, Guelph Ontario, has agreed to hold two (2) places per year specifically for Canisius College students that apply and meet the qualifications for their DVM program in veterinary medicine. Students interested in this opportunity must notify the pre-health advisor and/or HSARC director of their intention to apply to OVC by November 1st of their senior year in order to be considered eligible. This opportunity is not available for Canisius students that are Canadian citizens.

Please note: In all special programs, the student, once accepted, must meet the requirements established by each professional school.

Schedule (Joint Degree Program with S.U.N.Y. Buffalo Dental School):

Fall         Spring     
Freshman Year            
BIO 111/111L   4 credits   BIO 112/112L   4 credits
CHM 111   4 credits   CHM 112   4 credits
MAT 141 or MAT 111   4 credits        
             
Sophomore Year            
BIO 211/212L   4 credits    BIO 212/212L   4 credits
CHM 227   4 credits   CHM 228   4 credits
MAT 111 or MAT 141   4 credits    BIO 351    1 credit
             
             
Junior Year            
Biology elective w/ lab   4 credits   Biology elective w/ lab   4 credits
Biology elective w/ lab   4 credits   Biology elective w/out lab   3 credits
PHY 201   4 credits   PHY 201   4 credits
BIO 353   1 credit        

Dual Major

The number of electives available to biology majors allows the development of dual majors with other departments. Specific programs have been developed in Biology-Psychology. The Biology-Psychology major may select those courses that are cross-listed with the Psychology Department and listed below. The advisor is Dr. Michael Noonan of the Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (ABEC) program. Members of the biology faculty also frequently cooperate with other departmental faculty in the presentation of interdisciplinary courses.

Minors

The Biology Department also offers six minors: Cell and Molecular Biology, Environmental Biology, Neuroscience, Biology, Animal Behavior and Zoo Biology. Students interested in the Cell and Molecular, Environmental, Neuroscience, or Biology minors should consult with their departmental advisor to plan the proper course selections. Students interested in the Animal Behavior and Zoo Biology minors should consult with Dr. Michael Noonan, Chair of the Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (ABEC) department. A description of the Animal Behavior and Zoo Biology minors can be located within the ABEC pages of the college catalog.

Biology Minor
Biology Minor may be earned by any student who completes the required courses. Co- and/or pre-requisites for some of the required courses may effectively limit accessibility.

Students must complete 6 courses for the minor, all of which have labs. Four of these courses are required and two are electives. Required courses include: BIO111/L, BIO 112/L, BIO 211/L, BIO 212/L). Students must choose one elective at the 300 level and one elective at the 400 level. Both of these classes must be taken with their associated laboratories
TOTAL (6 courses)

 24 credits

 

 

The Cell and Molecular Biology Minor is open to students who are majoring in biology or chemistry. For students seeking employment at the B.S. level, a Departmental “Letter of Proficiency in Laboratory Skills” may be requested upon completion of the minor. This letter requires enrollment in either BIO 300 or BIO 301 and the passing of a laboratory skills competency exam given by the instructor.

Students select six courses from those listed below. At least four of the six courses must be taken with the laboratory, and no more than four courses and three laboratories may come from either the cell or genetics/molecular area.

Cell area: BIO 340, 414, 418, 419, 425, 426, 430, 432, 435, 445.
Genetics/ Molecular area: BIO 404, 405, 408, 424, 444, 450.
   
TOTAL (6 courses)   22 credits


Environmental Biology Minor
The Environmental Biology minor is open to students majoring in biology. It provides a broad preparation for entry into B.S. level positions in the environmental sciences and advanced study at the graduate level.2

Students must complete one course from each of the following groups:
Field Methods: BIO 320
Diversity: BIO 305, 335, 343, 365, 366, 370

Three additional electives from the following group are also required: 
BIO 305, 320, 322, 335, 343, 360, 365, 366, 370, 375, 377, 378.

Note
: At least four of the six courses must be taken with the laboratory 
TOTAL (6 courses) 22 credits

 

The Neuroscience minor may be earned by any student who completes the required courses. Note that there are prerequisites for some courses that will effectively limit accessibility to Biology and Biology/Psychology majors.

Students must take either BIO 425/425L or BIO 435/435L with its laboratory.
Students select 4 electives from: BIO 301 (3 semesters required), BIO 325, BIO 345, BIO 355, BIO 425, BIO 435, PSY 397, PSY 398, PSY 495
TOTAL (5 courses)
16-19 credits

 

Zoo Biology Minor (in conjunction with the ABEC program)
See descriptions under the Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (ABEC).

Animal Behavior Minor (in conjunction with the ABEC program)
See descriptions under the Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (ABEC).

Courses

BIO 111 Introductory Biology I   3 credits
Introductory course for freshmen biology and other science majors. Course provides foundation of evolution, natural selection and heredity, and ecological principles as mechanisms of selection and evolution. Topics include the basis of evolutionary theory, concept of natural selection, evolution of living cells, basic inheritance, biological diversity, intra- and inter-specific interactions between organisms, and interactions between organisms and their environment. Three hours of lecture and one one-hour recitation per week. Field 6

BIO 111L Introductory Biology Laboratory I    1 credit
Laboratories in selection, heredity, diversity, population biology and ecology. Also includes introduction to scientific method and scientific writing. Co-requisites: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 111.

BIO 112 Introductory Biology II    3 credits
Introductory course for freshmen biology and other science majors. Course focuses on homeostasis in multicellular organisms through exploring structure and function relationships in plants and animals. Topics include cell interactions in tissues and organs, anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and the role of natural selection in shaping the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals. Three hours of lecture and one one-hour recitation per week. Prerequisites: C- or better in BIO111.

BIO 112L Introductory Biology Laboratory II   1 credit
Laboratories that provide an examination of the structure and function of living organisms (plants and animals). Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 112.

BIO 211 Biochemistry and Cell Biology I     3 credits
Fundamentals of biochemistry (biological chemistry) and cell biology for students majoring in the biological sciences. Structure and biological activities of proteins and lipids. Integrates the cellular and biochemical relationships between systems within the cell, with an emphasis on membrane transport, signal transduction, and cell motility. Three hours of lecture and one one-hour recitation per week. Prerequisites: C- or better in BIO 111 and 112 and completion of CHM 111/112

BIO 211L Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab I    1 credit
Investigative laboratory provides opportunity for students to learn how to isolate, measure, and characterize macromolecules present within a variety of cellular systems. Three hours of lab per week. Corequisite: BIO 211

BIO 212 Biochemistry and Cell Biology II     3 credits
Fundamentals of biochemistry (biological chemistry) and cell biology for students majoring in the biological sciences. Structure and biological activities of carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Integrates the cellular and biochemical relationships between systems within the cell with an emphasis on the role cell communication, respiration, photosynthesis, gene expression, and cell division. Three hours of lecture and one one-hour recitation per week Prerequisites: C- or better in BIO111, BIO112, and BIO 211

BIO 212L Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab II     1 credit
Examination of experimental methodologies that relate the expression and action of various macromolecules to biological processes at the cellular/molecular level. The role of experimentation in the scientific process is emphasized. Three hours of lab per week.  Prerequisites: BIO 211/211L and concurrent registration in BIO 212.

BIO 298 Pre-clinical Experience for Undergraduates   1 credit
Students undertake a substantial shadowing experience in a clinical setting. Must document and complete a minimum of 100 hours of voluntary work with the same clinician within the academic period. An academic component is required. Student arranges contact with clinician. Application process and approval of department chair required. Prerequisite: BIO 111 and 112.

BIO 300 Research Methods  0 credits/BIO 301 Research Methods 1 credit
Training in experimental methods for the biological sciences under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Each section and research methodologies taught within the section unique to the instruction and research work of a specific faculty member. May be taken in multiple semesters for credit. Requires approval of faculty member for enrollment into each section.

BIO 351 Biology Seminar I    1 credit
Designed to provide sophomore Biology major students with the opportunity to learn various methods of preparing scientific/experimental information for oral presentation. Attendance at departmental seminars required.

BIO 353 Biology Seminar II    1 credit
Provides opportunities for fourth-year Biology major students to present seminars on research of the primary biological literature. Attendance at departmental seminars required. Prerequisite: BIO 351 Seminar I. Oral Communication Attribute for Core Curriculum

BIOLOGY ELECTIVES FOR MAJORS

BIO 305 Microbiology: An Environmental Perspective    4  credits
Microbiology course with emphasis on microbes and their ecology in humans, soil and water environments. Topics include diversity and characteristics of microorganisms, techniques used to isolate and study microorganisms, interactions among microbial populations in a variety of microbial communities and ecosystems, human host-microbe interactions, and bioremediation. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 305L Microbiology: An Environmental Perspective Laboratory   1 credit
Current approaches and techniques which allow the measurement of microorganisms in the environment. Topics include light microscopy, preparation of culture media and aseptic technique, staining of microorganisms, isolation and culture of specialized groups of bacteria from human, soil and aquatic environments. Interactions between microbial populations, biogeochemical cycling, and assessment of water quality will be discussed. Three hours of lab per week Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 305.

BIO 307 Microbiology     3 credits
Cell structure, genetics, biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria. Medical-microbiology, epidemiology and some immunology also are discussed. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 307L Microbiology Laboratory    1 credit
Microbiology laboratory is concerned primarily with the cell structure, growth, physiology and identification of bacteria. Three hours of lab per week. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 307.

BIO 310 Histology and Histophysiology    4 credits
A systematic study of structure and function of cells and tissues as viewed by light microscopy. Lab employs tissue slides and digital images. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: BIO 111-112

BIO 312 Primatology     3 credits
Primatology is the scientific study of primates. Topics include primate evolution, behavior, ecology, and conservation. Emphasis will be placed on reading and critiquing primary literature. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 313 Comparative Embryology    4 credits
Emphasis will be on early developmental stages as seen in the invertebrate sea urchin and in the chordate animals, including human embryology. Specific embryological and anatomical knowledge will be gained through macro- and microscopic investigations and dissections. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 314 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates    4 credits
Evolution of chordates, with emphasis on comparative anatomic, functional, and developmental aspects of vertebrate organ systems. The laboratory portion will include dissection of vertebrate specimens including shark, amphibian, cat, and selected mammal organs. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 316 Social Organization of Mammals    4 credits
Behavior and social structures of rodents, felines, canines, cetaceans, elephants, monkeys, apes and humans. Laboratory includes observation of animal groupings at local zoos and aquariums. Lab required.  Three hours of lecture and three hour of lab per week.  Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 317 Sex, Evolution and Behavior    3 credits
Reproductive behavior of diverse animal species, including humans, from an evolutionary perspective. Focus on how evolutionary accounts explain male-female differences in life style and behavior. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 320 Field Ecology    4 credits
Introduction to the flora, fauna and physical characteristics of regional terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with application of ecological theory.  Emphasis on field methods and application of scientific method from data collection, analysis, and data presentation. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and six hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 322 Conservation Biology     3 credits
Study of the plight of endangered species, the biological consequences of fragmented populations, and the scientific basis of habitat/species restoration. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 324 Human Anatomy   4 credits
A structure/function approach based on what was learned in BIO112, this course will allow the student to increase their conceptual understanding of human anatomy.  Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 325 Reproductive Biopsychology    3 credits
Neuro-endocrine mechanisms underlying behavior associated with sex, pregnancy, and parental care. Equal focus on human and non-human behavior. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 335 Plant Biology    3 credits
Critical examination of the structure, physiology and biochemistry of vascular plants. The interaction of plants with light, water and predators is included.  The plants’ ability to grow in the face of Global Climate change is discussed. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 335L Plant Biology Laboratory    1 credit
Investigative survey of plant structure and function. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 335.

BIO 340 Physiology     3 credits
Examination of the biochemical, molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining stable internal environments required for normal cell, tissue and organ function. Course focuses on cell and organ function, integrated physiological control systems for various organ systems, and the maintenance of homeostasis. Topics include cellular control mechanisms and metabolism, neuronal and hormonal control of physiological systems, signal transduction mechanisms, cardiovascular and respiratory physiology, immune function, and reproduction. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 340L Physiology Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental study of physiological systems, using biochemical, cellular and hematological techniques and electronic instrumentation. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 340.

BIO 343 Entomology    4 credits
Introduction to the diversity and natural history of insects. The structure, function, evolution and ecology of this group are emphasized. Laboratory focuses on anatomy, diversity, and classification.  Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 345 Functional Neuroanatomy    3 credits
Examination of human neuroanatomy, with emphasis on the relationship between neuronal circuits and nervous system function/dysfunction.  Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 355 Behavioral Neuroscience     3 credits
Functions of nervous and endocrine systems in mediating motivation, movement, sensation, ingestion, aggression, emotion, sleep, learning, memory, thought and behavior disorders. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 357 Evolution    3 credits
An in-depth examination of the unifying principles of evolutionary biology. Pre-Darwin ideas about evolution, Darwinian evolution, the Modern Synthesis, and contemporary evolutionary biology. Specific concepts include, but are not limited to, population genetics, speciation, origin of life, phylogenetic analysis, with special emphasis on the evolution of sexual reproduction, virulence evolution, and human evolution. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 357L Evolution Laboratory    1 credit
Examination of fundamental evolutionary processes through a combination of laboratory experiments, simulations, and analysis of experimental data sets. Three hours of lab per week. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 357.

BIO 360 Environmental Health     3 credits
Environmental effects on human health, including biological, physical and chemical hazards in water soil, and air. Course focuses on public health and epidemiological study approaches. Emerging issues also discussed. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 365 Vertebrate Zoology and Ecology    4 credits
The biology of the vertebrates including anatomy, evolution, ecology, natural history and behavior. Labs involve some anatomy, learning local and North American species and groups, and field trips. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 366 Ornithology    4 credits
Diversity, relationships, ecology, natural history and the behavior of birds. Laboratory focuses on world-wide diversity, local species and field techniques. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 370 Plant Morphology     4 credits
Examination of plant morphology and the relationship between morphology, evolution, plant adaptation and plant biology is emphasized. Laboratory focuses on examining morphological features of local and non-local plants in a hands-on-setting.  Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 371 Behavioral Ecology     3 credits
Animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective, focusing on the influences of evolutionary history and environment on behaviors including foraging, communication, reproduction, and social behavior. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

BIO 375 Community Ecology     3 credits
Examination of how processes in multi-species assemblages affect communities by altering species’ abundances, distributions, composition, and driving long-term evolutionary change. Both theoretical models and empirical studies are used to illustrate concepts. Prerequisites: BIO 111-112

Bio 375L Community Ecology Laboratory    1 credit
The laboratory reinforces ecological concepts discussed in lecture through computer simulations along with field-collected and experimental data. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 375.

BIO 376 Evolutionary Applications   3 credits
Provides an advanced understanding on how evolutionary processes lead to patterns observed in natural populations with an emphasis on humans. Topics include evaluation of mechanisms of microevolutionary change and the evolutionary importance of mechanisms such as altruism, life history, aging, and pathogen virulence. Prequisite: BIO 111-112.

Bio 377 Freshwater Biology     4 credits
Explores the biology of lakes, rivers, and wetlands.  Lectures cover the main concepts in freshwater ecology, including the major physical, biological, and biogeochemical characteristics of freshwater environments.  Lab required.  The laboratory component covers field techniques, laboratory analyses and identification of common aquatic organisms.  Prerequisite: BIO 111-112

Bio 378 Wetlands     3 credits
Explores the plants, animals and environmental conditions that define wetland environments. The course covers the physical characteristics such as the soils and hydrology, the biological adaptations by plants and animals, and human interaction with these diverse and vibrant ecosystems. Prerequisite: BIO 111-112

BIO 400 Independent Study     3 credits
Independent study under the direction of a faculty member. Arrangements made prior to registration. Prerequisite: Written permission of tutorial faculty member.

BIO 401 Independent Research     4 credits
Independent laboratory research in biology conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. Arrangements made prior to registration. Prerequisite: Written permission of faculty member.

BIO 404 Genetics     3 credits
Principles of Mendelian, molecular, population, human and quantitative genetics, with emphasis on inherited diseases. Three hours of lecture and one hour of recitation per week.  Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 404L Genetics Laboratory    1 credit
Principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics as demonstrated by experiments with Drosophila and other experimental organisms. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 404.

BIO 405 Medical Genetics    3 credits
Study of the molecular basis of human disease, with a particular emphasis placed on those mechanisms underlying inherited diseases.  Topics include modes of transmission of human characteristics and diseases, both in families and in populations, developmental and cancer genetics, as well as the techniques utilized for screening, diagnosing and treating specific genetic disorders. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 405L Medical Genetics Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental methods used in the study of medical genetics. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 405.

BIO 406 Population Genetics      3 credits
General introduction to the field of population genetics, the branch of evolutionary biology concerned with the genetic structure of populations and how it changes through time. We will examine the interaction of basic evolutionary processes (including mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, inbreeding, recombination, and gene flow), with special emphasis on their application to species conservation. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 406L Population Genetics Laboratory      1 credit
Principles of population genetics (classical, quantitative, and molecular) as demonstrated by experiments with Drosophila and other experimental organisms. Three hours of lab per week. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 406.

BIO 408 Biotechnology, Theory in Practice    4 credits
Introduction to the theory and experiments that are the foundation of biotechnology through lecture and laboratory. Topics include genetic engineering, mutagenesis, separation technology, immunobiotechnology and cell biology. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 414 Proteins and Enzymes    3 credits
The biochemical characteristics of proteins and enzymes will be examined using a modular approach to target important structural proteins and regulatory enzymes of animal and plant metabolism. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 414L Proteins and Enzymes Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental techniques for the purification of proteins, the analysis of protein function and the measurement of enzyme kinetics. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent registration in BIO 414

BIO 418 Endocrinology    3 credits
Synthesis and cellular/molecular actions of peptides and steroid hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and their roles in regulating physiological processes, maintenance of homeostasis and cancer biology. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 418L Endocrinology Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental laboratories researching current topics in endocrinology at the molecular, cellular and organismal levels. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 418.

BIO 419 Cell Biology    3 credits
In depth examination of cellular processes, including metabolism, motility, gene expression, protein processing and sorting, signal transduction, cell cycle, cell death, cell renewal and differentiation are discussed.  Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, BIO 212 or BCH 301

BIO 419L Cell Biology Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental laboratories examining different cellular processes, including cytoskeleton, protein localization, and gene expression. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 419.

BIO 424 Epigenetics and Disease    3 credits
Epigenetic mechanisms alter how the genome is utilized and it is apparent that this changes between healthy and disease states. Furthermore the basis for many diseases may be programmed during development. This course focuses on how epigenetics contributes to disease states and the impact of environment influences on phenotype via epigenetic changes. A key focus of the course is understanding how epigenetic changes are transmitted through cell division and over multiple generations.  Topics include cancer, neurodegenerative conditions, metabolism and metabolic syndromes, autoimmune disorders and allergies. Prerequisites: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 425 Cellular Neurobiology   3 credits
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system function. Topics include neuron/glia interactions, signaling within the nervous system, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 425L Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory     1 credit
Experimental laboratories researching current topics in cell and molecular neurobiology. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 425.

BIO 426 Immunochemistry    3 credits
Structural concept of antigenic determinants, immunoglobulin sequences and combining site specificity related to the diversity of the immune response and its control. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 426L Immunochemistry Laboratory    1 credit
Current methods in immunological research and diagnosis. Designed to present available methodology and insight into the underlying principles. Three hours of lab per week. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 426.

BIO 430 Human Nutrition and Metabolism     3 credits
Human nutrition, intermediary metabolism and disease are discussed.  The biosynthesis and pharmacology of chemicals derived from plants and their importance to human health are considered. . Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 432 Developmental Biology     3 credits
A study of the basic principles that shape the development of a complex, multicellular organism from a single cell, with a particular emphasis being placed on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.  Multiple model organisms will be utilized to discuss relevant topics including fertilization, cell fate determination and differentiation, pattern formation, and organogenesis.  The impact of developmental biology on medicine will be discussed, with a specific focus on regeneration. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 432L Developmental Biology Laboratory    1 credit
Examination of the cellular and molecular aspects of animal development using classical model organisms. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: concurrent enrollment in BIO 432.

BIO 435 Developmental Neurobiology    3 credits
Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying development of the nervous system and neurodevelopmental disorders.   Topics include:  neural induction, neurogenesis, migration, axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and regeneration. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 435L Developmental Neurobiology Laboratory    1 credit
Experimental studies of the development and regeneration of nervous
tissue using neuronal tissue culture and digital microscopy. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 435.

BIO 440 Medical Biochemistry      3 credits
Biochemistry of disease. Includes examination of pathways and regulatory enzymes that lead to normal and disease states. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 444 Cancer Biology     3 credits
The study of the causes of cancer, progression of the disease (tumor formation to metastasis), and therapeutic approaches. There will be an examination of the underlying genetic and molecular changes that occur as well as global changes within tumors. Students learn the common features of different types of cancers as well as the distinguishing characteristics of a few specific cancers. Throughout the course therapeutic targets will be identified and novel therapeutic approaches will be discussed.  The end of the course will focus on the influence and impact of environmental factors with regards to cancer incidence. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, and either BIO 211,212 or BCH 301

BIO 445 Cellular Imaging     4 credits
Current approaches to studying cells using microscopy and digital imaging analysis. Students will learn to acquire digital microscopic images using light and fluorescence microscopy, to quantitatively analyze data from digital images, and to process digital images. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, 211, 212

BIO 450 Molecular Biology     3 credits
This course focuses on genomes and nuclear organization and function. Topics include genome content and organization from an evolutionary perspective, epigenetic inheritance, chromatin structure and organization, somatic recombination, and organismal complexity.  Prerequisite: BIO 111, 112, and either BIO 211,212 or BCH 301

BIO 450L Molecular Biology Laboratory     1 credit
Experimental laboratories examining the regulation of gene expression and how regulation affects expression. Three hours of lab per week.  Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIO 450.

BIO 498 Biology With Distinction Thesis    3 credits
Requirement for any student seeking to complete the Biology with Distinction degree option. Must be taken by seniors in the fall or spring of their senior year.

BIO 499 Biology Internship          3 credits
Provides students with work experience in the biological sciences. Practical application of material taught in biology classes to the work environment. Application process and permission of department chair required.

NON-MAJOR BIOLOGY COURSES 

BIO 109 Nutrition     3 credits
How food intake influences us as individuals and as components of society, what food is, how we get and use food, processes regulating its use. Field 6

BIO 116 Disease: Myth and Reality       3 credits
Exploration of causation, treatment and prevention of illness. Objective: to increase awareness and understanding of health and disease. Field 6

BIO 120 Biology in the News        3 credits
The biological concepts underlying science articles appearing in the current news media, examining these concepts in the context of relevant economic, social and cultural issues. Topics will vary. Field 6

BIO 221 Biology of Women         3 credits
Biological principles applied to the human female. Structure, function, growth and development throughout the life cycle. Includes relevant social, psychological and medical information. Associated with Women’s Studies Program. Field 6

CORE CAPSTONE COURSES

BIO 477 Plants and Society      3 credits
Various ways in which plants affect human existence. Topics include food products, building (utilitarian) applications, medicinal and poisonous plants, propagation and improvement, roles in ecology. Core Capstone for all majors. This course does not count for the biology major.

OTHER COURSES

(for allied health professionals, clinical laboratory science, pre-pharmacy and select majors within the college of education; may not be used as electives for the Biology major).

BIO 114/114L Human Biology: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology       4 credits
Introductory course for those students requiring an understanding of the structure and function of the human body. Course examines the relationships among physiology, anatomy, metabolism, genetics, evolution, the physical environment, and exercise, and how they relate to diet, human health and disease. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

BIO 115/115L Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Physiology     4 credits
Examination of the anatomy, physiology and biomechanical characteristics of the musculoskeletal components, and associated neural and vascular structures, of the human body. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Students must earn a minimum grade of C in BIO 114 to advance to BIO 115. Prerequisite: BIO 114