Undergraduate
Major
Minor

Biology Catalog

College of Arts & Sciences
Biology (BS)

Chairs: Andrew Stewart, PhD and Lisa Morey, PhD
 

Introduction

The Biology major offers broad training in the biological sciences and balances organismal with cellular/molecular biology. This background serves as a solid preparation for

  1. future graduate level education in the biological sciences
  2. future professional education in clinical and health-related sciences
  3. employment at the bachelor’s level
  4. additional training in other disciplines that require a thorough understanding of biology, such as various areas of business, communications, engineering, law and social policy development

The biology program of study combines lectures and a hands-on learning experience in both its core and elective courses. The elective courses offered within the major cover a variety of biological fields, which allow students to sample many areas of biology or to investigate more thoroughly specific areas of special interest. In addition, the opportunity to perform independent research with a faculty member in the Biology Department helps develop additional skills not normally offered in undergraduate courses and provides additional opportunities to apply the knowledge acquired in coursework. Please see the website for a more detailed description of the program, faculty, facilities, academic and co-curricular opportunities. Canisius has developed programs for students interested in Early Assurance Acceptance into the SUNY Upstate (College of Medicine) and Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (College of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine and School of Pharmacy); Joint Degree Programs with the University at Buffalo (School of Dental Medicine and School of Pharmacy), Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (College of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine and School of Pharmacy), and SUNY College of Optometry. Canisius also has a Memorandum of Understanding with the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. In addition, a series of specialized courses have been developed for the non-science major that relate biological concepts and scientific methodologies to societal issues facing humankind as a result of technological advances.

Qualifications

Students must maintain a 2.0 overall average to graduate with a degree in Biology. Students must attain a C- or greater in each of the introductory courses (BIO 111, BIO 112, and BIO 211) in order to progress into the next course in the Biology sequence. Students must have a C- or better in BIO 212 and successfully complete BIO 211L and BIO 212L to take any 400-level Biology courses.

Advisement

All students should have an advisor in the major and should contact the department directly to have an advisor assigned if they do not already have one.  Meetings with academic advisors are required prior to students receiving their PIN for course registration each semester. All majors should work closely with their advisor in discussing career expectations, choosing their major electives, developing their entire academic program and planning their co-curricular or supplemental academic experiences.

In addition to academic advisement for the major, advisement relevant to career options in the biological sciences, including pre-clinical and research interests, is also provided.

Major Experiences

All faculty in the Biology Department are research-active and maintain their own research program at Canisius. Students interested in pursuing research opportunities with Biology faculty are encouraged to speak with individual faculty members about their work and research opportunities in their respective laboratories.

Biology with Distinction

This degree option for the biology program is intended for biology majors who have a true interest in research and may have career interests in biological or biomedical research. Upon graduation they will receive certification of completing their major with distinction. Program requirements include writing of a formal research proposal to be submitted to their thesis committee, completion of the research project (600 research hours minimum), writing the final thesis paper, and presentation of a departmental seminar with verbal thesis defense in front of their committee. Interested students must apply to this program by January of their junior year. See the department chair for complete details including appropriate paperwork.

Double Majors

Students who wish to expand their educational opportunities may decide to declare a double major. This decision may be based on career goals, planned graduate studies, and/or other student interests. Before a student declares a double major, it is important to meet with the appropriate academic departments for advisement.  In order to declare a double major, the student must complete the appropriate double major request form and get the signature of each department chairperson and the appropriate associate dean. 

Per college policy, each additional major requires a minimum of 15 credits that do not apply to the student's first or subsequent major.  Some double major combinations can be completed within the minimum 120 credit hour degree requirement, but in other cases additional course work may be required. Please note that students will receive only one degree, regardless of the number of majors they complete. Both (all) majors appear on a student’s transcript.

Minors in Other Disciplines

Minors provide students the opportunity to pursue additional interests but generally do not require as many courses as a major.  Minors generally range from five to eight required courses. To receive a minor, the student must complete at least 9 credit hours of coursework distinct from their other credentials (i.e., majors, other minors). The minors page provides a complete list of minors and provides links to each minor. Some majors and minors can be completed within the minimum 120 credit hour degree requirement, but in some cases additional coursework may be required. Students must complete the appropriate minor request form.

Additional Course Considerations

It is particularly important that the biology major maintain the indicated required science course sequence to ensure prerequisite requirements are met for upper-level courses and to ensure that all basic requirements have been completed prior to taking standardized graduate/professional school entrance examinations (e.g. GRE, MCAT, DAT). These exams are normally taken late in spring semester of the junior year. Biology majors normally take BIO 111/BIO 112 and CHM 111/CHM 112 in the freshman year, and BIO 211/BIO 212 and CHM 227/CHM 228 in the sophomore year so that they stay on schedule for completing the major requirements. In selecting courses for the major, students should consult carefully with their advisors each semester about the best selection of courses for the coming semesters. In addition, students will want to consult the on-line advisement guide, which is published each semester and contains valuable information about course offerings for the coming semester’s offerings.

Curriculum

An Ignatian Foundation

All undergraduate students must complete either the Canisius Core Curriculum or the All-College Honors Curriculum. Many schools refer to their college-wide undergraduate requirements as "general education" requirements. We believe that the core curriculum and the honors curriculum are more than a series of required classes; they provide the basis for a Jesuit education both with content and with required knowledge and skills attributes that are central to our mission.

Free Electives

Students may graduate with a bachelor's degree with more but not less than 120 credit hours. Free electives are courses in addition to the Canisius Core Curriculum or All-College Honors Curriculum and major requirements sufficient to reach the minimum number of credits required for graduation. The number of credits required to complete a bachelor's degree may vary depending on the student's major(s) and minor(s).

Major Requirements

The Biology curriculum fulfills all requirements and prepares students well for graduate programs in the biological sciences, and for schools of allopathic (MD) and osteopathic (DO) medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and several allied health programs including, but not limited to, chiropractic, optometry, physician’s assistant, and podiatry.

Biology Major Course Requirements

BIO 111
111L
Introductory Biology I
and Introductory Biology Laboratory I
4
BIO 112
112L
Introductory Biology II
and Introductory Biology Laboratory II
4
BIO 211
211L
Biochemistry and Cell Biology I
and Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab I
4
BIO 212
212L
Biochemistry and Cell Biology II
and Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab II
4
BIO 351Biology Seminar I1
BIO 353Biology Seminar II1
CHM 111
111L
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry I Laboratory 1
4
CHM 112
112L
General Chemistry II
and General Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHM 227
227L
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHM 228
228L
Organic Chemistry II
and Organic Chemistry II Laboratory
4
PHY 201
201L
College Physics I
and College Physics I Laboratory
4
PHY 202
202L
College Physics II
and College Physics II Laboratory
4
Select one of the following mathematics electives options:8
Option 1:
MAT 111
Calculus I 1
MAT 141
Inferential Statistics and Computers for Science
or PSY 201
Basic Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
Option 2:
MAT 111
MAT 112
Calculus I
and Calculus II 1
Option 3:
One year of statistics for sciences
Biology Major Electives (6 courses as described below)22
Total Credits72

Major Electives

Select six 300- or 400-level lecture courses, four with associated laboratories
Area 1 Elective and Lab4
Area 2 Elective and Lab4
Area 3 Elective and Lab4
Biology Elective 13
Biology Elective 13
Biology Elective and Lab 24
Total Credits22

ARea 1:  Ecology and Evolution

BIO 305
305L
Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis
and Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis Lab 1
4
BIO 320
320L
Field Ecology
and Field Ecology Lab
4
BIO 357
357L
Evolution
and Evolution Laboratory
4
BIO 375
375L
Community Ecology
and Community Ecology Laboratory
4
BIO 377
377L
Freshwater Biology
and Freshwater Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 378
378L
Wetlands
and Wetlands Laboratory
4
BIO 406
406L
Population and Conservation Genetics
and Population and Conservation Genetics Laboratory
4

AREA 2:  Organismal Biology

BIO 307
307L
Microbiology
and Microbiology Laboratory
4
BIO 324
324L
Human Anatomy
and Human Anatomy Lab
4
BIO 335
335L
Plant Biology
and Plant Biology Lab
4
BIO 340
340L
Physiology
and Physiology Laboratory
4
BIO 343
343L
Entomology
and Entomology Lab
4
BIO 366
366L
Ornithology
and Ornithology Laboratory
4
BIO 370
370L
Plant Morphology
and Plant Morphology Lab
4

Area 3:  molecular and cellular biology

BIO 404
404L
Genetics
and Genetics Laboratory
4
BIO 414
414L
Enzymes and Proteins
and Enzymes and Proteins Laboratory
4
BIO 419
419L
Cell Biology
and Cell Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 425
425L
Cellular Neurobiology
and Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory
4
BIO 426
426L
Immunochemistry
and Immunochemistry Laboratory
4
BIO 430
430L
Advanced Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism
and Advanced Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism Laboratory
4
BIO 432
432L
Developmental Biology
and Developmental Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 435
435L
Developmental Neurobiology
and Develop Neurobiology Laboratory
4
BIO 450
450L
Molecular Biology
and Molecular Biology Laboratory
4

Biology Electives

BIO 312Primatology3
BIO 317Sex, Evolution and Behavior3
BIO 322Conservation Biology3
BIO 345Functional Neuroanatomy3
BIO 357Evolution3
BIO 360Environmental Health3
BIO 364Zoology: Diversity of Animal Life3
BIO 424Epigenetics and Disease3
BIO 441Neurobiology of Nervous System Disorders3
BIO 444Cancer Biology3

Roadmap

Recommended Semester Schedule for Major Course Requirements

Freshman
FallSpring
BIO 111
111L
BIO 112
112L
CHM 111
111L1
CHM 112
112L1
MAT (Calculus or Statistics)MAT (Calculus or Statistics)
Sophomore
FallSpring
BIO 211
211L
BIO 212
212L
CHM 227
227L
CHM 228
228L
 BIO 351
Junior
FallSpring
PHY 201
201L
PHY 202
202L
BIO Elective with labBIO Elective with lab
Senior
FallSpring
BIO Elective with labBIO Elective with lab
BIO ElectiveBIO Elective
BIO 353 

Learning Goals & Objectives

Student Learning Goal 1

Students will develop competency with respect to knowledge, having a working understanding of basic concepts in the biological sciences.

Students will:
  • Objective A: Demonstrate detailed knowledge within at least two areas of biology to be selected among the following: from ecology/evolutionary biology; molecular biology/cellular biology/biochemistry; physiology/organism biology; 
  • Objective B: Connect previously learned material with current research in biology. 

Student Learning Goal 2

Students will develop problem solving skills applicable to the biological sciences.

Students will:
  • Objective A: Accurately interpret data;
  • Objective B: Design an experiment to address a specific hypothesis;
  • Objective C: Critically analyze an article from the original scientific literature or a professional report.

Student Learning Goal 3

Students will demonstrate mastery with respect to technical skills in the biological sciences.        

Students will:
  • Objective A: Effectively communicate scientific material in a written format;
  • Objective B: Effectively communicate scientific material orally;
  • Objective C: Draw graphs or design tables to accurately represent scientific information;
  • Objective D: Describe or Explain instrumentation and technology appropriate to their course of study.

Minors

The Biology Department offers six minors: General Biology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Environmental Biology, Neuroscience, Animal Behavior, and Zoo Biology. Students interested in the Cell and Molecular Biology, Environmental Biology, Neuroscience, or Biology minors should consult with the coordinator of that minor and their departmental advisor to plan the proper course selections. Students interested in the Animal Behavior and Zoo Biology minors should consult with Dr. Sue Margulis, Chair of the Animal Behavior, Ecology and Conservation (ABEC) department. A description of the Animal Behavior and Zoo Biology minors can be located within the ABEC pages of the college catalog. A description of the other minors are listed in the following text.

Minors are an important part of the undergraduate curriculum.  If students declare a minor by sophomore year, they can usually complete it in a timely manner.  Students should work with their advisor to determine if it is possible that the minor can be completed by graduation.  

To receive a minor, a student must complete at least 9 credit hours of coursework distinct from their major(s) and from other minors, and students must complete more than 50% of the coursework required for the minor at Canisius. Please note that “ancillary/supporting” courses required for a major may still count as distinct courses as long as the remaining coursework still meets the 30 credit-hours required for a major. For more information about minor policies, please see the Declaring Majors and Minors page in the catalog.

Courses

BIO 109 Nutrition 3 Credits

How food intake influences us as individuals and as components of society, what food is, how we get and use food, processes regulating its use.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

BIO 111 Introductory Biology I 3 Credits

Introductory course for freshmen biology and other science majors. Course provides foundation of evolution, natural selection and heredity, and ecological principles as mechanisms of selection and evolution. Topics include the basis of evolutionary theory, concept of natural selection, evolution of living cells, basic inheritance, biological diversity, intra- and inter-specific interactions between organisms, and interactions between organisms and their environment. Three hours of lecture and a one and a half hour recitation per week.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

Offered: every fall.

BIO 111L Introductory Biology Laboratory I 1 Credit

Laboratories in selection, heredity, diversity, population biology and ecology. Also includes introduction to scientific method and scientific writing. Three hours of lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 111.

Offered: every fall.

BIO 112 Introductory Biology II 3 Credits

Introductory course for freshmen biology and other science majors. Course focuses on homeostasis in multicellular organisms through exploring structure and function relationships in plants and animals. Topics include cell interactions in tissues and organs, anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and the role of natural selection in shaping the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals. Three hours of lecture and a one and a half hour recitation per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 112L Introductory Biology Laboratory II 1 Credit

Laboratories that provide an examination of the structure and function of living organisms (plants and animals). Three hours of lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 112.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 114 Human Biology: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 3 Credits

Introductory course for those students requiring an understanding of the structure and function of the human body. Course examines the relationships among physiology, anatomy, metabolism, genetics, evolution, the physical environment, and exercise, and how they relate to diet, human health and disease. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

Offered: fall & spring.

BIO 114L Human Biology: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory 1 Credit

One three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 114.

Offered: fall & spring.

BIO 115 Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Physiology 3 Credits

Examination of the anatomy, physiology and biomechanical characteristics of the musculoskeletal components, and associated neural and vascular structures, of the human body. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 115L.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 115L Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory 1 Credit

One three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 115.

Offered: fall & spring.

BIO 116 Disease: Myth and Reality 3 Credits

Exploration of causation, treatment and prevention of illness. Objective: to increase awareness and understanding of health and disease.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

BIO 120 Biology in the News 3 Credits

The biological concepts underlying science articles appearing in the current news media, examining these concepts in the context of relevant economic, social and cultural issues. Topics will vary.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

Offered: fall.

BIO 121 Human Reproduction 3 Credits

This course will explore the following topics: the process of human sexual development, birth control and fertility, human reproductive anatomy, the reproductive process, body changes during pregnancy, human embryonic and fetal development and developmental disorders. Scientific literature will be consulted on important issues including abortion, in vitro fertilization, germ-line CRISPR-modifications, sexuality, and gender identity. There will be a focus on the variety of paths and outcomes possible at all life stages of sexual reproduction and development.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 150 Animal Nutrition 3 Credits

Nutrition and dietary science focused on the maintainance of wildlife in captivity. Practical examples at our local zoo and aquariums are included.

BIO 166 Biology of Birds 3 Credits

An introduction to the diversity, behavior, anatomy, and physiology of birds. Students will learn how to identify common local birds. Topics include flight, songs and calls, finding mates, nesting behaviors, and migration. Three hours of lecture per week.

Fulfills College Core: Field 6 (Natural Sciences)

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 199 Science Scholars Transfer Student Seminar 1 Credit

Seminar course for first year BIO/ENV/ABEC transfer students to aid in integration into respective major. During the semester, we will review skill necessary for success in the major(s), discuss topics identified as missing/lacking from transferred introductory biology courses, and how to get involved in departmental activities (i.e. research, clubs, etc.). Course meets once a week (75 minutes) and will be scheduled around availability of participants, as possible. All Science Scholar Transfer students are required to take this course during the first year of their scholarship.

Restrictions: Canisius Science Scholar transfer scholarship recipient or permission of instructor.

Offered: every fall.

BIO 211 Biochemistry and Cell Biology I 3 Credits

Fundamentals of biochemistry (biological chemistry) and cell biology for students majoring in the biological sciences. Structure and biological activities of proteins and lipids. Integrates the cellular and biochemical relationships between systems within the cell, with an emphasis on membrane transport, signal transduction, and cell motility. Three hours of lecture and a one and a half hour recitation per week.

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C- in BIO 112 & CHM 111 or co-enrollment in CHM 112 with permission of Chair.

Offered: every fall.

BIO 211L Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab I 1 Credit

Investigative laboratory provides opportunity for students to learn how to isolate, measure, and characterize macromolecules present within a variety of cellular systems. Three hours of lab per week.

Corequisite: BIO 211.

Offered: fall.

BIO 212 Biochemistry and Cell Biology II 3 Credits

Fundamentals of biochemistry (biological chemistry) and cell biology for students majoring in the biological sciences. Structure and biological activities of carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Integrates the cellular and biochemical relationships between systems within the cell with an emphasis on the role cell communication, respiration, photosynthesis, gene expression, and cell division. Three hours of lecture and a one and a half hour recitation per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 211 & CHM 112.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 212L Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab II 1 Credit

Examination of experimental methodologies that relate the expression and action of various macromolecules to biological processes at the cellular/molecular level. The role of experimentation in the scientific process is emphasized. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: BIO 211 & minimum grade of D in BIO 211L. Corequisite: BIO 212.

Offered: spring.

BIO 298 Pre-clinical Experience for Undergraduates 1 Credit

Students undertake a substantial shadowing experience in a clinical setting. Must document and complete a minimum of 100 hours of voluntary work with the same clinician within the academic period. An academic component is also required. Student arranges contact with clinician. Application process is required.

Prerequisite: BIO 111, BIO 112, & approval of the department chair.

Offered: fall & spring.

BIO 300 Research Methods (non-credit) 0 Credits

Training in experimental methods for the biological sciences under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Each section and research methodologies taught within the section unique to the instruction and research work of a specific faculty member. Requires approval of faculty member for enrollment into an individual section.

Offered: fall, spring, & summer.

BIO 301 Research Methods (credit) 1 Credit

Training in experimental methods for the biological sciences under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Each section and research methodologies taught within the section unique to the instruction and research work of a specific faculty member. May be taken in multiple semesters for credit. Requires approval of faculty member for enrollment into an individual section.

Offered: fall, spring, & summer.

BIO 302 Science Scholars Seminar I: Research, Presentations, & Publishing 1 Credit

Seminar course for students actively pursuing undergraduate research, or students planning on pursuing graduate research in the future. During the semester, we will discuss how to get involved in research lab, how to pursue independent research projects, how to seek research funding, how to present research (posters & oral presentations), and finally how to publish research results. Course meets once a week (75 minutes) and will be scheduled around availability of participants, as possible. All Science Scholars are required to take this course once during the three years of their scholarship.

Restrictions: Canisius College Science Scholar scholarship recipient or permission of instructor.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 303 Science Scholars Seminar II: Career Preparation, Applications, & Interviews 1 Credit

Seminar course for students actively pursuing, or planning on pursuing graduate school or post-graduate employment in biology-related fields. During the semester, we will discuss how to identify potential graduate schools/employers, how to prepare application materials, and how to prepare for in-person interviews. Course meets once a week (75 minutes) and will be scheduled around availability of participants, as possible. All Science Scholars are required to take this course once during the three years of their scholarship.

Restrictions: Canisius Science Scholar scholarship recipient or permission of instructor.

Offered: every fall.

BIO 305 Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis 3 Credits

Microbiology course that merges discussion of microbial interactions in the human environment (both beneficial and disease-causing) with discussion of microbial interactions in other natural environments. Topics include microbial & ecosystem diversity, the human microbiome compared to other microbial communities, human host-pathogen interaction compared to microbial competition in soil and water, and disease treatment compared to environmental bioremediation.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 305L Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis Lab 1 Credit

Current and historical techniques for the isolation and measurement of microorganisms in the environment and for differentiation between medically important bacteria. Topics include microscopy, preparation of culture media and aseptic technique, staining of microorganisms, isolation and culture of specialized groups of bacteria from human, soil or aquatic environments, and determination of antibiotic resistance. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 305.

BIO 307 Microbiology 3 Credits

Cell structure, genetics, biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria. Medical microbiology, epidemiology, and some immunology also are discussed.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 307L Microbiology Laboratory 1 Credit

Microbiology laboratory is concerned primarily with the cell structure, growth, physiology and identification of bacteria. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 307.

BIO 308 Parasitology 3 Credits

Parasitism is the most common biological interaction on the planet, and virtually every organism can be infected by one or more parasites. This course will provide a comprehensive introduction to parasites, their hosts, and the co-evolutionary relationship between them. This class deals primarily with human and animal parasites of public health/ecological importance, including amoeba, malaria, trypanosomes, helminths, and other microparasites.

Prerequisite: BIO 111 and BIO 112.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 312 Primatology 3 Credits

Primatology is the scientific study of primates. Topics include primate evolution, behavior, ecology, and conservation. Emphasis will be placed on reading and critiquing primary literature.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Fulfills College Core: Advanced Writing-Intensive

Offered: every fall.

BIO 317 Sex, Evolution and Behavior 3 Credits

Reproductive behavior of diverse animal species, including humans, from an evolutionary perspective. Focus on how evolutionary accounts explain male-female differences in life style and behavior.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Offered: spring 2017 and fall 2017.

BIO 320 Field Ecology 4 Credits

Introduction to the flora, fauna and physical characteristics of regional terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Emphasis on field methods and implementation of scientific method from data collection, analysis, and data presentation. Introduction to Geographic Information System (GIS) and its applications in ecology. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and six hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Offered: fall of even-numbered years.

BIO 320L Field Ecology Lab 0 Credits

BIO 320 Field Ecology lab.

Offered: fall of even-numbered years.

BIO 322 Conservation Biology 3 Credits

Study of the plight of endangered species, the biological consequences of fragmented populations, and the scientific basis of habitat/species restoration.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 324 Human Anatomy 3 Credits

A structure/function approach based on what was learned in BIO112, this course will allow the student to increase their conceptual understanding of human anatomy. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 324L Human Anatomy Lab 1 Credit

Required lab for BIO 324.

Corequisite: BIO 324.

BIO 335 Plant Biology 3 Credits

Critical examination of the structure, physiology and biochemistry of vascular plants. The interaction of plants with light, water and predators is included. The plants' ability to grow in the face of global climate change is discussed.

Prerequisites: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 335L Plant Biology Lab 1 Credit

Investigative survey of plant structure and function. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 335.

BIO 340 Physiology 3 Credits

Examination of the biochemical, molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining stable internal environments required for normal cell, tissue and organ function. Course focuses on cell and organ function, integrated physiological control systems for various organ systems (including cardiovascular, respiratory, GI, renal, reproductive, and immune), and the maintenance of homeostasis. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 340L Physiology Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental study of physiological systems, using biochemical, cellular and hematological techniques and electronic instrumentation. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 340.

BIO 343 Entomology 4 Credits

Introduction to the diversity and natural history of insects. The structure, function, evolution and ecology of this group are emphasized. Laboratory focuses on anatomy, diversity and classification. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 343L Entomology Lab 0 Credits

BIO 343 Entomology Lab.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 345 Functional Neuroanatomy 3 Credits

Examination of human neuroanatomy, with emphasis on the relationship between neuronal circuits and nervous system function/dysfunction. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 351 Biology Seminar I 1 Credit

Designed to provide sophomore biology major students with the opportunity to learn various methods of preparing scientific/experimental information for oral presentation. Attendance at departmental seminars required. Meets for 1.5 hours per week.

Offered: every spring.

BIO 353 Biology Seminar II 1 Credit

Provides opportunities for fourth-year Biology major students to present seminars on research of the primary biological literature. Attendance at departmental seminars required. Meets for 1.5 hours per week.

Prerequisite: BIO 351.

Fulfills College Core: Oral Communication

Offered: every fall.

BIO 357 Evolution 3 Credits

An in-depth examination of the unifying principles of evolutionary biology. Pre-Darwin ideas about evolution, Darwinian evolution, the Modern Synthesis, and contemporary evolutionary biology. Specific concepts include, but are not limited to, population genetics, speciation, origin of life, phylogenetic analysis, with special emphasis on the evolution of sexual reproduction, virulence evolution, and human evolution. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 357L Evolution Laboratory 1 Credit

Examination of fundamental evolutionary processes through a combination of laboratory experiments, simulations, and analysis of experimental data sets. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 357.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 360 Environmental Health 3 Credits

Environmental effects on human health, including biological, physical and chemical hazards in water soil, and air. Course focuses on public health and epidemiological study approaches. Emerging issues also discussed.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Offered: Spring 2021.

BIO 364 Zoology: Diversity of Animal Life 3 Credits

This course will explore differences in form, function, systematics and evolutionary relationships of the major groups of animal life on the planet. The course will focus on the evolution of major patterns in body plans and physiological adaptations of the major phyla within the animal kingdom.

Prerequisite: BIO 112.

Offered: fall.

BIO 364L Zoology: Diversity of Animal Life Laboratory 1 Credit

This laboratory course will explore anatomical and physiological differences within and among taxonomic groups in the animal kingdom.

Corequisite: BIO 364.

Offered: fall.

BIO 366 Ornithology 4 Credits

Diversity, relationships, ecology, natural history and the behavior of birds. Laboratory focuses on world-wide diversity, local species and field techniques. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112. Corequisite: BIO 366L.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 366L Ornithology Laboratory 0 Credits

BIO 366 Ornithology lab.

Corequisite: BIO 366.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 370 Plant Morphology 3 Credits

Examination of plant morphology and the relationship between morphology, evolution, plant adaptation and plant biology is emphasized. Laboratory focuses on examining morphological features of local and non-local plants in a hands-on-setting. Lab required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112. Corequisite: BIO 370L.

BIO 370L Plant Morphology Lab 1 Credit

Required lab for BIO 370.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 370.

BIO 375 Community Ecology 3 Credits

Examination of how processes in multi-species assemblages affect communities by altering species' abundances, distributions, composition and driving long-term evolutionary change. Both theoretical models and empirical studies are used to illustrate concepts. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisites: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 375L Community Ecology Laboratory 1 Credit

The laboratory reinforces ecological concepts discussed in lecture through computer simulations along with field- collected and experimental data. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO112L. Corequisite: BIO 375.

BIO 377 Freshwater Biology 4 Credits

Explores the biology of lakes, rivers, and wetlands. Lectures cover the main concepts in freshwater ecology, including the major physical, biological, and biogeochemical characteristics of freshwater environments. Lab required. The laboratory component covers field techniques, laboratory analyses and identification of common aquatic organisms. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 377L Freshwater Biology Laboratory 0 Credits

BIO 377 Freshwater Biology lab.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 378 Wetlands 3 Credits

Explores the plants, animals and environmental conditions that define wetland environments. The course covers the physical characteristics such as the soils and hydrology, the biological adaptations by plants and animals, and human interaction with these diverse and vibrant ecosystems.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 111 & BIO 112.

BIO 378L Wetlands Laboratory 1 Credit

Optional lab for Wetlands. Meets once a week for three hours.

BIO 400 Independent Study 1-3 Credits

Independent study under the direction of a faculty member. Arrangements made prior to registration. Independent studies require an application and approval by the associate dean.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor, department chair, & associate dean.

BIO 401 Independent Research 1-4 Credits

Independent laboratory research in biology conducted under the supervision of a faculty member. Arrangements made prior to registration.

Prerequisite: written permission of faculty member & department chair.

BIO 404 Genetics 3 Credits

Principles of Mendelian, molecular, population, human and quantitative genetics, with emphasis on inherited diseases. Three hours of lecture and a one and a half hour of recitation per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 404L Genetics Laboratory 1 Credit

Principles of Mendelian and molecular genetics as demonstrated by experiments with Drosophila and other experimental organisms. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 404.

Fulfills College Core: Advanced Writing-Intensive

BIO 406 Population and Conservation Genetics 3 Credits

General introduction to the field of population genetics, the branch of evolutionary biology concerned with the genetic structure of populations and how it changes through time. We will examine the interaction of basic evolutionary processes (including mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, inbreeding, recombination, and gene flow), with special emphasis on their application to species conservation. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 406L Population and Conservation Genetics Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental studies designed to explore fundamental concepts in population genetics and their application in conservation. Laboratory is a combination of in vitro Drosophilaexperiments and in silico computer simulations/data analyses.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L.

BIO 412 Evolution & Development 3 Credits

This course will cover concepts, methods and paradigmatic examples in the field of evolutionary developmental biology ("evodevo"). Evo-devo is both a new and old field of biology focusing on how mechanisms controlling development have changed during evolution. The course will cover basic developmental mechanisms based on gene regulation, cell communication, differentiation, growth, etc.(the “genetic toolkit”). Other concepts include evolutionary novelty, evolution of patterning, the genetic basis of complexity, and evolution of the gene regulatory network controlling development.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 412L Evolution & Development Lab 1 Credit

Optional lab for EvoDevo. The lab will explore the use of non-model organisms for EvoDevo research and illustrate examples from class.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO 212L. Corequisite: BIO 412.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 414 Enzymes and Proteins 3 Credits

The biochemical characteristics of proteins and enzymes will be examined using a modular approach to target important structural proteins and regulatory enzymes of animal and plant metabolism. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 414L Enzymes and Proteins Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental techniques for the purification of proteins, the analysis of protein function and the measurement of enzyme kinetics. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 414.

BIO 419 Cell Biology 3 Credits

In depth examination of cellular processes, including metabolism, motility, gene expression, protein processing and sorting, signal transduction, cell cycle, cell death, cell renewal and differentiation are discussed. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 419L Cell Biology Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental laboratories examining different cellular processes, including cytoskeleton, protein localization, and gene expression. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 419.

BIO 424 Epigenetics and Disease 3 Credits

Epigenetic mechanisms alter how the genome is utilized and it is apparent that this changes between healthy and disease states and may start during development. This course focuses on the impact of environment influences on phenotype via epigenetic changes. Topics include cancer, metabolism and metabolic syndromes, autoimmune disorders and allergies. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 425 Cellular Neurobiology 3 Credits

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying nervous system function. Topics include neuron/glia interactions, signaling within the nervous system, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 425L Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental laboratories researching current topics in cell and molecular neurobiology. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 425.

BIO 426 Immunochemistry 3 Credits

Structural concept of antigenic determinants, immunoglobulin sequences and combining site specificity related to the diversity of the immune response and its control. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 426L Immunochemistry Laboratory 1 Credit

Current methods in immunological research and diagnosis. Designed to present available methodology and insight into the underlying principles. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 426.

BIO 430 Advanced Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism 3 Credits

This course focuses on the Biochemistry of human nutrition with emphasis on nutritional components and their metabolism in humans. The course will also discuss various disease treatments and their mechanisms of effect in disease systems. A mechanism-based approach will be utilized to elucidate functional biochemistry within human physiology and establish links to disease states. The function of metabolic pathways, vitamins and metals as essential players in cell survival and human disease is discussed.

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C- in BIO 212 OR BCH 301, and a minimum grade of C- in CHM 228.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 430L Advanced Cellular Biochemistry and Metabolism Laboratory 1 Credit

This course focuses on the Biochemistry of pathways associated with higher plant and animal metabolism. A function / mechanism-based approach will be utilized to elucidate the biochemistry within protein and enzyme structure. The regulation of enzyme activity and functional conformation will be examined in several hands on, inquiry based research experiences.

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of C- in BIO 212 or BCH 301. Corequisite: BIO 430.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 431 Developmental Biology 3 Credits

A study of the basic principles that shape the development of a complex, multicellular organism from a single cell,with a particular emphasis being placed on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Relevant topics include fertilization, cell fate determination and differentiation, pattern formation, and organogenesis. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 432 Developmental Biology 3 Credits

A study of the basic principles that shape the development of a complex, multicellular organism from a single cell,with a particular emphasis being placed on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Relevant topics include fertilization, cell fate determination and differentiation, pattern formation, and organogenesis. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

Fulfills College Core: Advanced Writing-Intensive

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 432L Developmental Biology Laboratory 1 Credit

Examination of the cellular and molecular aspects of animal development using classical model organisms. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: BIO 211L & BIO 212L.

Offered: occasionally.

BIO 435 Developmental Neurobiology 3 Credits

Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying development of the nervous system and neurodevelopmental disorders. Topics include: neural induction, neurogenesis, migration, axon guidance, synaptogenesis, and regeneration. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 435L Develop Neurobiology Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental studies of the development and regeneration of nervous tissue using neuronal tissue culture and digital microscopy. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 435.

BIO 441 Neurobiology of Nervous System Disorders 3 Credits

Cellular and molecular mechanisms under lying diseases of the nervous system, with an emphasis on emerging therapeutic approaches to treating diseases. Topics covered include: neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, infectious diseases, neuropsychiatric illnesses, stroke, and trauma. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 444 Cancer Biology 3 Credits

The causes of cancer, progression of the disease, and therapeutic approaches will be discussed. Students learn the common features of cancers as well as the distinguishing characteristics of a few specific cancers. Throughout the course therapeutic targets will be identified and novel therapeutic approaches will be discussed. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 450 Molecular Biology 3 Credits

This course focuses on genomes and nuclear organization and function. Topics include genome content and organization from an evolutionary perspective, epigenetic inheritance, chromatin structure and organization, somatic recombination, and organismal complexity. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of C- in BIO 212.

BIO 450L Molecular Biology Laboratory 1 Credit

Experimental laboratories examining the regulation of gene expression and how regulation affects expression. Three hours of lab per week.

Prerequisite: minimum grade of D in BIO212L. Corequisite: BIO 450.

BIO 477 Plants and Society 3 Credits

Various ways in which plants affect human existence. Topics include food products, building (utilitarian) applications, medicinal and poisonous plants, propagation and improvement, roles in ecology. Open to students in any major. This course does not count for the biology major.

Fulfills College Core: Core Capstone

BIO 498 Biology With Distinction Thesis 3 Credits

Requirement for any student seeking to complete the Biology with Distinction degree option. Must be taken by seniors in the fall or spring of their senior year.

BIO 499 Biology Internship 3 Credits

Provides students with work experience in the biological sciences. Practical application of material taught in biology classes to the work environment. Requires an application and approval by the associate dean.

Prerequisite: permission of the department chair & associate dean.

The Dual Degree Program offers a BS in Biology as well as a MSEd in Adolescence 7-12 Teaching Students with Disabilities Generalist. This dual degree program leads to Initial Adolescence Certification in Biology as well as Initial Certification in Adolescence 7-12 SWD Generalist. Since it leads to two teaching certificates, candidates must meet the content requirements for both over the course of their curriculum.  In most cases, the content area major covers those requirements.  In some instances New York State has additional requirements. Please note, this dual degree program can be completed in as little as 5 years if one summer is included.

Curriculum

An Ignatian Foundation

All undergraduate students must complete either the Canisius Core Curriculum or the All-College Honors Curriculum. Many schools refer to their college-wide undergraduate requirements as "general education" requirements. We believe that the core curriculum and the honors curriculum are more than a series of required classes; they provide the basis for a Jesuit education both with content and with required knowledge and skills attributes that are central to our mission.

Free Electives

Students may graduate with a bachelor's degree with more but not less than 120 credit hours. Free electives are courses in addition to the Canisius Core Curriculum or All-College Honors Curriculum and major requirements sufficient to reach the minimum number of credits required for graduation. The number of credits required to complete a bachelor's degree may vary depending on the student's major(s) and minor(s).

Major Requirements

Undergraduate Courses

Biology Major Courses
BIO 111
111L
Introductory Biology I
and Introductory Biology Laboratory I
4
BIO 112
112L
Introductory Biology II
and Introductory Biology Laboratory II
4
BIO 211
211L
Biochemistry and Cell Biology I
and Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab I
4
BIO 212
212L
Biochemistry and Cell Biology II
and Biochemistry and Cell Biology Lab II
4
BIO 351Biology Seminar I1
BIO 353Biology Seminar II1
Biology Electives
Select one course with its associated laboratory from each of the Areas listed below12
Biology Lecture Courses (3) from Areas or any 300- or 400- BIO Courses and Lab (1) 110
Chemistry & Physics Courses
CHM 111
111L
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry I Laboratory 1
4
CHM 112
112L
General Chemistry II
and General Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHM 227
227L
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHM 228
228L
Organic Chemistry II
and Organic Chemistry II Laboratory
4
PHY 201
201L
College Physics I
and College Physics I Laboratory
4
PHY 202
202L
College Physics II
and College Physics II Laboratory
4
Mathematics Courses
Select one of the following mathematics electives options:8
Option 1: Caculus I & Inferential Stats
MAT 111
Calculus I 2
MAT 141
Inferential Statistics and Computers for Science
or PSY 201
Basic Statistics for Behavioral Sciences
Option 2: Calculus I & II
MAT 111
MAT 112
Calculus I
and Calculus II 2
Option 3: Statistics for Sciences
One year of statistics for sciences
Education Courses
EDS 101Human Growth and Social Development: Adolescence3
EDS 223Foundations of Adolescent Literacy3
EDS 360Evaluation and Teaching Strategies3
EDS 405Methods of Teaching Science: Adolescence3
EDU 250Foundations of Education3
EDU 356Assessment for Diverse Learners3
SPE 311Nature/Needs of Childhood Students with Intellectual Disabilities & Autism Spectrum Disorders3
SPE 341Inclusive Strategies3
Total Credits96

Area 1:  Ecology and Evolution

BIO 305
305L
Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis
and Medical Microbiology and its Ecological Basis Lab 1
4
BIO 320
320L
Field Ecology
and Field Ecology Lab
4
BIO 357
357L
Evolution
and Evolution Laboratory
4
BIO 375
375L
Community Ecology
and Community Ecology Laboratory
4
BIO 377
377L
Freshwater Biology
and Freshwater Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 378
378L
Wetlands
and Wetlands Laboratory
4
BIO 406
406L
Population and Conservation Genetics
and Population and Conservation Genetics Laboratory
4

AREA 2:  Organismal Biology

BIO 307
307L
Microbiology
and Microbiology Laboratory
4
BIO 324
324L
Human Anatomy
and Human Anatomy Lab
4
BIO 335
335L
Plant Biology
and Plant Biology Lab
4
BIO 340
340L
Physiology
and Physiology Laboratory
4
BIO 343
343L
Entomology
and Entomology Lab
4
BIO 366
366L
Ornithology
and Ornithology Laboratory
4
BIO 370
370L
Plant Morphology
and Plant Morphology Lab
4

Area 3:  Molecular and Cellular Biology

BIO 404
404L
Genetics
and Genetics Laboratory
4
BIO 414
414L
Enzymes and Proteins
and Enzymes and Proteins Laboratory
4
BIO 419
419L
Cell Biology
and Cell Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 425
425L
Cellular Neurobiology
and Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory
4
BIO 426
426L
Immunochemistry
and Immunochemistry Laboratory
4
BIO 432
432L
Developmental Biology
and Developmental Biology Laboratory
4
BIO 435
435L
Developmental Neurobiology
and Develop Neurobiology Laboratory
4
BIO 450
450L
Molecular Biology
and Molecular Biology Laboratory
4

Please note, two math, two science, and two history courses are needed for SWD certification. Candidates also need to take 3 credit hours in a LOTE (Language other than English).

Graduate Courses

The education curriculum is provided below for the graduate MSeD portion of the dual degree program. Several foundation courses are taken at the undergraduate level listed above with the requirements for the history major.  The graduate courses begin at the 500 level and continue until completion. These courses can be taken during a student's senior year. Refer to the roadmap for further details.

EDU 556Assessment for Diverse Learners 13
or EDU 356 Assessment for Diverse Learners
EDU 595Child Abuse Workshop0
EDU 596Prevention of School Violence Workshop 0
EDU 597Dignity for All Students Workshop0
EDU 615Research Methods3
SPE 580Classroom Management3
SPE 631Reading and Writing Process for Students with Learning and Behavioral Disorders3
SPE 640Learning and Behavioral Disabilities (LBD); Etiology and Research Based Interventions3
SPE 644Collaborative Practices on a Transdisciplinary Team3
SPE 649Transition Issues for Adolescents with Disabilities3
SPE 650Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology & Educational Needs 13
or SPE 311 Nature/Needs of Childhood Students with Intellectual Disabilities & Autism Spectrum Disorders
SPE 652Functional Curriculum for Students with Severe Disabilities and ASD3
SPE 698Seminar in Teaching and Assessment3
SPE 693Student Teaching9
SPE 697Student Teaching Seminar0
Total Credits39

Roadmap

Freshman
FallSpring
BIO 111
111L
BIO 112
112L
CHM 111
111L1
CHM 112
112L1
MAT (Calculus or Statistics)MAT (Calculus or Statistics)
 HIS Course
Sophomore
FallSpring
BIO 211
211L
BIO 212
212L
CHM 227
227L
BIO 351
EDS 101CHM 228
228L
EDU 250BIO Elective
 SPE 341
Junior
FallSpring
BIO 307 or 307LBIO Elective
PHY 201
201L
BIO Elective with lab
EDS 223PHY 202
202L
EDS 360EDS 405
 HIS Course
Senior
FallSpring
BIO Elective with labBIO Elective with lab
BIO Elective with labEDU 615
BIO 353SPE 649
EDU 356Core Capstone
SPE 311 
SPE 644 
Fifth Year
FallSpring
SPE 580EDU 595
SPE 631EDU 596
SPE 640EDU 597
SPE 698SPE 693
 SPE 697